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  2008 NPHC Analytical Report »
Analytical Report on Poverty Dimension

Executive Summary

This poverty analysis of the National Population and Housing Census conducted
in 2008 will be very important in guiding Government in her policy planning and
formulation because programs that target the poor and most vulnerable groups
can be better focused in the coming years. More specifically, the Poverty
Reduction Strategy (PRS) - commonly referred to as “Lift Liberia”- is under
revision and these results may guide prioritization of social programs to areas
with high concentration of the poor, more especially in rural areas. The Unmet
Basic Needs (UBN) Approach was used to measure the poverty level in the
country. The use of access to basic needs as a proxy for poverty measurement has captured the world’s attention because it identifies areas of social services

The overall objective of the poverty analysis is to identify the poor, their
characteristics and geographical distribution using the unmet basic needs
approach. Unmet basic needs index was worked out based on the 2008 Census
data. The services included in the index are: ownership of assets, quality of
housing, access to health services, safe water, proper solid waste management
system, literacy and unemployment status of the households.

The essential assets deficiency was about 85 percent in the country. Likewise the
non essential assets deficiency was also very high, estimated at about 96 percent. The high percentage of households without the essential and non essential amenities shows the general aftermath effect of the civil conflict which resonated in all villages, hamlets, towns and cities throughout the country.

Electricity deficiency for both lighting and cooking was very high in the country.
Electricity for lighting deficiency was about 95 percent. In addition, the use of
pipe borne water as main source of drinking water was very low; the piped water
deficiency of about 61 percent. The country experiences high level of improper
waste disposal because 87 percent of the households do not use flush t more
Analytical Report on Gender Dimension

The relation between gender and development is very critical for a country because it identifies the social roles and relations among women and men of all ages when assessing the level of development. Equal participation of men and women is of paramount importance in order to achieve sustainable economic, political, civil and socio- cultural development.

The results of the analysis indicated that almost the same number of males and females was found in Liberia at the time of the census. There were 670,295 heads of households of whom males were more than female heads at the national, rural- urban and county levels.

Higher proportions of female headed households did not own essential assets compared to the male headed households. In contrast, the male headed households had more deficiency in flush toilets and electricity access compared to female headed households.

Male migrants were slightly more than female migrants. Households headed by females were slightly more common in urban areas than in rural areas where the reverse is true.

Half of the females were reported to have never been to school compared to a third of the males. A smaller proportion of females completed school compared to males. Females living in urban areas were found to have a more completion rate compared to those in rural areas. More males than females dropped out of school due to the civil war in Liberia.

At the time of the census, a higher proportion of males were attending school compared to females. While more males were enrolled than females in the urban areas, there was almost no difference in enrollment between males and females in rural areas. The gap between the males and females who are literate in Liberia is narrow for the age group 10-29 but it increases with age.

A higher proportion of males were paid employees compared to the females at the time of the census. More male headed households were engaged in agriculture compared to the female headed households.

More females compared to males were found in the workforce especially in non professional service sector like accommodation and food services. A higher proportion of females were found to be more affected by disabilities, compared to males.

In conclusion, the analysis revealed the existence of gender disparities in favor of males among various socioeconomic indicators especially in education, employment and ownership of amenities. This implies that there is gender inequality in access t more
Analytical Report on Housing Condition and Housing Facilities
This analytical report presents the household characteristics and housing conditions of Liberia. The household headship among males and females was mainly concentrated in the age group 25-49; accounting for about two thirds of the households. As expected, the proportion of household heads at younger ages for both sexes was found to be small, less than 3 percent. At the national level, the male headed households were 73 percent while the female headed were 27 percent.

The total population of Liberia was 3,476,608 of which 98.5 percent lived in households, while the rest (1.5 percent) were living in other living quarters around the country. It was noted that, the Bush society declined, reflecting a cultural transformation in Liberia where a substantial portion of the population may have shifted away from this traditional form of living.

About one third of the households in Liberia resided in one room followed by those households residing in two- room houses (19 percent). About one third of the households reported that they used pipe or pump out door as the main source of drinking water, followed by river, lake or spring which amounted to 23 percent. Flush toilets usage was also limited, 14 percent of the households used flush toilets for waste disposal compared to about half of the households who relied on bushes.

In Liberia, 57 percent of the households depended on charcoal and 37 percent on wood for cooking. In terms of access to health services, about one third of households reportedly took less than 20 minutes to reach the nearest health facility and another one third took 80 minutes and above to reach the nearest health facility. About half of the households were living in self-constructed housing units and 15 percent of these housing units were inherited. About 47 percent of the households reportedly resided in poor quality housing units whose outer walls were made of mud and sticks and only 22 percent were in housing units made of cement blocks.

The country had high essential and non-essential household amenities deficiency. At the national level, paid employees reported the highest usage of essential and non- essential household amenities. For instance, the percentages of households owning mattress, radio and furniture were estimated at 76 %, 54 % and 34 % respectively. Over half of the farmers who grow food crop mainly for subsistence were resident in temporary housing units implying that gainful employment is crucial for poverty reduction; through better pay more
Analytical Report on Population Projection


Executive Summary

The overall objective of this report is to project Liberia’s population for a period of 100 years (from 2008 to 2108) to enable planners and policy makers know what is likely to happen in future so as to make informed decisions. The report examines demographic characteristics of these projections so as to provide a basis in which planners can prescribe appropriate policies which are in line with the national development goals. The 2008 census data was evaluated and like many census undertakings the world over, it was found to have content errors in form of age misreporting and digit preference around digits 0 and 5, and in ages 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60. Quality assessment was done and the data was smoothed. The smoothed population of Liberia was updated to midyear 2008 and comprised of 1,750,539 males and 1,742,024 females. This data was taken to be the base year population for projection.

When projecting, three fertility assumptions were considered: low, medium and high fertility scenarios. This was intended to show how much the government would spend or save in case of a high or medium or low fertility scenario. Estimates were based on past and current data derived from previous censuses and surveys. From the results, the low fertility scenario in Liberia is expected to decrease from 5.2 live births per woman in 2008 to 2 births in 2108. In the medium scenario, fertility would decline from 5.8 live births to 3 births while in the high fertility scenario fertility would decline more slowly from 5.8 births in 2008 to 4 live birth per woman during the same period, 2108.
Past trends of mortality were used to form assumptions about future values of mortality. Although Liberia has HIV2, it was found to have a minimal effect on the general mortality pattern and with vigorous HIV/AIDS programmes, its impact in the future was assumed to be insignificant. Results of the analysis show that female life expectancy at birth will increase from 43.6 years in 2008 to about 70 years in 2108 while that of males is expected to rise from 42.5 years to 68 years in the same period.

Although there is evidence that fertility will continue to decline, projections show that the population of Liberia will grow for so more
Analytical Report on Fertility and Marriage

Executive Summary

The Government, realizing the adverse socio-economic consequences of rapid population growth, formulated integrated population policy guidelines in 1988 which accorded the moderation of fertility a priority. The family planning programme was enhanced and integrated as the key strategy to reduce fertility.

The International Conference on Population and Development, held in Mexico in 1984, had impact on Liberia’s policy formulation and led to the adoption of a National Population Policy for Social and Economic Development in 1988. The policy emphasizes reproductive health including family planning, sexual health and reproductive rights. It outlines Liberia’s goals, objectives and targets to guide the implementation of the population programmes up to the year 2010. These included reduction in infant mortality rate from 117 to 59 and TFR from 6.2 to 2.5.

The objectives of this report are to determine the levels and trends of fertility and nuptiality in Liberia.

The method developed by Brass (1968) with revised version of multipliers suggested by the United Nations (1983) using the Software Package (MORTPAK-LITE) developed by the United Nations (1988) has also been used to estimate fertility measures for Liberia.

Analyses of nuptiality levels and trends have been based on proportions of various marital statuses as portrayed by various censuses. Hajnal’s (1953) method has been applied to both proportions of single males and females to produce indices for Singulate Mean Age at First Marriage (SMAM). The proportion of childless women was obtained as the ratio of women reported as childless to all whose parities were stated.

The parity progression ratios are calculated by cumulating by parity to give the numbers with ’n’ or more children, and then dividing the numbers with (n + 1) or more.

Liberia’s fertility increas more
Administrative Report

Executive Summary

In the LISGIS Act, Section 50A.7 of the Laws of the Republic of Liberia empowers LISGIS to collect information from persons and establishments, in order that LISGIS achieve its goals and objectives. One of LISGIS’ objectives is to provide timely and reliable statistics for planning and monitoring Government development strategies. The national data bank was vandalized during the civil wars thus destroying most of the statistical time series including the detailed information on censuses of 1962, 1974 and 1984.

After the 1984 census, Liberia should have conducted a census in 1994 and 2004 but did not, mainly because of the civil wars. The civil wars also destroyed most of the detailed population statistics collected during the census of 1962, 1974 and 1984 leaving information mainly at national levels only. The results of the 1984 census were lost during the civil war before the analysis phase. The post war statistical situation was from scanty data mainly from sample surveys and not adequately covering smaller subnational

The Government expressed its commitment to conduct this census when it launched the census document in July 2006. The main concept behind the 2008 census was to provide the urgently needed information for planning and monitoring development processes at all levels of planning. The previous censuses were de jure, which means that they enumerated only usual residents in Liberia. The 2008 census was de facto meaning that they enumerated all persons who spent the reference census night of 20th/21st March 2008 in Liberia. The enumeration/data collection took place from 21st to 30th March 2008.

The preliminary results of the 2008 census, showing the total population, by sex and basic population indicators by county district and major urban areas, were released in June 2008. The final results were pronounced by the Minister of Planning and Economic Affairs, Amara M. Konneh in May, 2009. The final report including fourteen (14) thematic tables was also launched in December, 2009 by the Minister of Planning and Economic Affairs. This Administrative Report covers details of how the census activities of the various census phases were planned and implemented. It also gives account of innovations, challenges and finally gives recommendations on how to avoid or overcome some of the challenges. It is hoped that this report will be a usefu more
Analytical Report on Population Size and Composition

Executive Summary

The overall objective of analyzing population size and composition of Liberia’s population is to describe the age – sex structure and its household and cultural composition using the 2008 National Population and Housing Census.

Analysis of household composition show that the average household size of Liberia was 5.1 persons having declined from 6.1 in 1984; and at county level, household size was highest in Maryland. Besides, nearly a quarter of the households were headed by females while at county level, female headship was highest in Lofa County and lowest in Gbarpolu County. Surprisingly, there was a small proportion of households headed by children less than 15 years despite having had a civil war for over two decades.
While also, all the population were counted from their households, a smaller
proportion was enumerated in other institutions. The analysis reveals that the country’s carrying capacity or the population density stands at 90 persons per square mile and that of Montserrado County was the highest among the 15 counties.

By examining the age structure, it was found that the population is young and youthful and will continue to fuel further population growth for many years to come.
This is due to the population’s nature of fertility regime which is impacting the population momentum. The high population growth in the face of small resource base has implications towards the poor social indicators in the country especially in education, health, agriculture, environment and sanitation and, housing particularly in urban areas. These indicators are not expected to improve in the near future if population growth continues at the present rate.

Although one would have expected more men to have died during the civil conflict, however, high sex ratios in favor of men were observed in most of the counties. There were 17 major ethnic groups and of these, the Kpelle were found to be the largest (20.3%), followed by the Bassa (13%). Christians were found to be the largest religious group (85.6%), followed by the Muslims (12.2%). Several direct and indirect actions are being conveyed to the government. First, the large population momentum can be moderated by increasing family planning, reducing fertility and increasing the age at marriage.
Secondly, the l more
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